# Unimportant and Advanced Features of Matrices and Solvers¶

This chapter introduces additional features of the PETSc matrices and solvers. Since most PETSc users should not need to use these features, we recommend skipping this chapter during an initial reading.

## Extracting Submatrices¶

One can extract a (parallel) submatrix from a given (parallel) using

This extracts the `rows`

and `col`

umns of the matrix `A`

into
`B`

. If call is `MAT_INITIAL_MATRIX`

it will create the matrix
`B`

. If call is `MAT_REUSE_MATRIX`

it will reuse the `B`

created
with a previous call.

## Matrix Factorization¶

Normally, PETSc users will access the matrix solvers through the `KSP`

interface, as discussed in KSP: Linear System Solvers, but the
underlying factorization and triangular solve routines are also directly
accessible to the user.

The LU and Cholesky matrix factorizations are split into two or three stages depending on the user’s needs. The first stage is to calculate an ordering for the matrix. The ordering generally is done to reduce fill in a sparse factorization; it does not make much sense for a dense matrix.

```
MatGetOrdering(Mat matrix,MatOrderingType type,IS* rowperm,IS* colperm);
```

The currently available alternatives for the ordering `type`

are

`MATORDERINGNATURAL`

- Natural`MATORDERINGND`

- Nested Dissection`MATORDERING1WD`

- One-way Dissection`MATORDERINGRCM`

- Reverse Cuthill-McKee`MATORDERINGQMD`

- Quotient Minimum Degree

These orderings can also be set through the options database.

Certain matrix formats may support only a subset of these; more options may be added. Check the manual pages for up-to-date information. All of these orderings are symmetric at the moment; ordering routines that are not symmetric may be added. Currently we support orderings only for sequential matrices.

Users can add their own ordering routines by providing a function with the calling sequence

```
int reorder(Mat A,MatOrderingType type,IS* rowperm,IS* colperm);
```

Here `A`

is the matrix for which we wish to generate a new ordering,
`type`

may be ignored and `rowperm`

and `colperm`

are the row and
column permutations generated by the ordering routine. The user
registers the ordering routine with the command

```
MatOrderingRegister(MatOrderingType ordname,char *path,char *sname,PetscErrorCode (*reorder)(Mat,MatOrderingType,IS*,IS*)));
```

The input argument `ordname`

is a string of the user’s choice,
either an ordering defined in `petscmat.h`

or the name
of a new ordering introduced by the user. See the code in
`src/mat/impls/order/sorder.c`

and other files in that
directory for examples on how the reordering routines may be written.

Once the reordering routine has been registered, it can be selected for
use at runtime with the command line option
`-pc_factor_mat_ordering_type`

`ordname`

. If reordering from the API, the
user should provide the `ordname`

as the second input argument of
`MatGetOrdering()`

.

The following routines perform complete, in-place, symbolic, and numerical factorizations for symmetric and nonsymmetric matrices, respectively:

```
MatCholeskyFactor(Mat matrix,IS permutation,const MatFactorInfo *info);
MatLUFactor(Mat matrix,IS rowpermutation,IS columnpermutation,const MatFactorInfo *info);
```

The argument `info->fill > 1`

is the predicted fill expected in the
factored matrix, as a ratio of the original fill. For example,
`info->fill=2.0`

would indicate that one expects the factored matrix
to have twice as many nonzeros as the original.

For sparse matrices it is very unlikely that the factorization is actually done in-place. More likely, new space is allocated for the factored matrix and the old space deallocated, but to the user it appears in-place because the factored matrix replaces the unfactored matrix.

The two factorization stages can also be performed separately, by using the out-of-place mode, first one obtains that matrix object that will hold the factor

```
MatGetFactor(Mat matrix,MatSolverType package,MatFactorType ftype,Mat *factor);
```

and then performs the factorization

```
MatCholeskyFactorSymbolic(Mat factor,Mat matrix,IS perm,const MatFactorInfo *info);
MatLUFactorSymbolic(Mat factor,Mat matrix,IS rowperm,IS colperm,const MatFactorInfo *info);
MatCholeskyFactorNumeric(Mat factor,Mat matrix,const MatFactorInfo);
MatLUFactorNumeric(Mat factor,Mat matrix,const MatFactorInfo *info);
```

In this case, the contents of the matrix `result`

is undefined between
the symbolic and numeric factorization stages. It is possible to reuse
the symbolic factorization. For the second and succeeding
factorizations, one simply calls the numerical factorization with a new
input `matrix`

and the *same* factored `result`

matrix. It is
*essential* that the new input matrix have exactly the same nonzero
structure as the original factored matrix. (The numerical factorization
merely overwrites the numerical values in the factored matrix and does
not disturb the symbolic portion, thus enabling reuse of the symbolic
phase.) In general, calling `XXXFactorSymbolic`

with a dense matrix
will do nothing except allocate the new matrix; the `XXXFactorNumeric`

routines will do all of the work.

Why provide the plain `XXXfactor`

routines when one could simply call
the two-stage routines? The answer is that if one desires in-place
factorization of a sparse matrix, the intermediate stage between the
symbolic and numeric phases cannot be stored in a `result`

matrix, and
it does not make sense to store the intermediate values inside the
original matrix that is being transformed. We originally made the
combined factor routines do either in-place or out-of-place
factorization, but then decided that this approach was not needed and
could easily lead to confusion.

We do not currently support sparse matrix factorization with pivoting
for numerical stability. This is because trying to both reduce fill and
do pivoting can become quite complicated. Instead, we provide a poor
stepchild substitute. After one has obtained a reordering, with
`MatGetOrdering(Mat A,MatOrdering type,IS *row,IS *col)`

one may call

```
MatReorderForNonzeroDiagonal(Mat A,PetscReal tol,IS row, IS col);
```

which will try to reorder the columns to ensure that no values along the
diagonal are smaller than `tol`

in a absolute value. If small values
are detected and corrected for, a nonsymmetric permutation of the rows
and columns will result. This is not guaranteed to work, but may help if
one was simply unlucky in the original ordering. When using the `KSP`

solver interface the option `-pc_factor_nonzeros_along_diagonal <tol>`

may be used. Here, `tol`

is an optional tolerance to decide if a value
is nonzero; by default it is `1.e-10`

.

Once a matrix has been factored, it is natural to solve linear systems. The following four routines enable this process:

matrix `A`

of these routines must have been obtained from a
factorization routine; otherwise, an error will be generated. In
general, the user should use the `KSP`

solvers introduced in the next
chapter rather than using these factorization and solve routines
directly.

## Unimportant Details of KSP¶

`PetscDrawAxisDraw()`

, are usually not used directly by the
application programmer Again, virtually all users should use `KSP`

through the `KSP`

interface and, thus, will not need to know the
details that follow.

It is possible to generate a Krylov subspace context with the command

Before using the Krylov context, one must set the matrix-vector multiplication routine and the preconditioner with the commands

In addition, the `KSP`

solver must be initialized with

Solving a linear system is done with the command

Finally, the `KSP`

context should be destroyed with

```
KSPDestroy(KSP *ksp);
```

It may seem strange to put the matrix in the preconditioner rather than
directly in the `KSP`

; this decision was the result of much agonizing.
The reason is that for SSOR with Eisenstat’s trick, and certain other
preconditioners, the preconditioner has to change the matrix-vector
multiply. This procedure could not be done cleanly if the matrix were
stashed in the `KSP`

context that `PC`

cannot access.

Any preconditioner can supply not only the preconditioner, but also a routine that essentially performs a complete Richardson step. The reason for this is mainly SOR. To use SOR in the Richardson framework, that is,

is much more expensive than just updating the values. With this addition
it is reasonable to state that *all* our iterative methods are obtained
by combining a preconditioner from the `PC`

package with a Krylov
method from the `KSP`

package. This strategy makes things much simpler
conceptually, so (we hope) clean code will result. *Note*: We had this
idea already implicitly in older versions of `KSP`

, but, for instance,
just doing Gauss-Seidel with Richardson in old `KSP`

was much more
expensive than it had to be. With PETSc this should not be a problem.

## Unimportant Details of PC¶

Most users will obtain their preconditioner contexts from the `KSP`

context with the command `KSPGetPC()`

. It is possible to create,
manipulate, and destroy `PC`

contexts directly, although this
capability should rarely be needed. To create a `PC`

context, one uses
the command

The routine

sets the preconditioner method to be used. The routine

```
PCSetOperators(PC pc,Mat Amat,Mat Pmat);
```

set the matrices that are to be used with the preconditioner. The routine

```
PCGetOperators(PC pc,Mat *Amat,Mat *Pmat);
```

returns the values set with `PCSetOperators()`

.

The preconditioners in PETSc can be used in several ways. The two most basic routines simply apply the preconditioner or its transpose and are given, respectively, by

In particular, for a preconditioner matrix, `B`

, that has been set via
`PCSetOperators(pc,Amat,Pmat)`

, the routine PCApply(pc,x,y) computes
\(y = B^{-1} x\) by solving the linear system \(By = x\) with
the specified preconditioner method.

Additional preconditioner routines are

The first two routines apply the action of the matrix followed by the
preconditioner or the preconditioner followed by the matrix depending on
whether the `right`

is `PC_LEFT`

or `PC_RIGHT`

. The final routine
applies `its`

iterations of Richardson’s method. The last three
routines are provided to improve efficiency for certain Krylov subspace
methods.

A `PC`

context that is no longer needed can be destroyed with the
command